EX 4: Article Analysis- Addiction
- Quote the author's main thesis.
"Although the vast majority of studies undertaking the examination of electronic games and the emergence of a gaming culture deny that games are addictive, a stereotype of the game player as addicted continues to circulate in various strands of ego-psychology and pedagogical study and, with greater force and political affect, in popular culture, news media and governmental rhetoric."
- What evidence does the author use in order to support the main idea?
"However, it does remain a fact that the stereotyping of gameplay as addictive continues, and it comes into play in submissions to censorship boards in various countries, it informs government ministers and politicians and lawmakers in their attitude to gaming, it has discernible indirect effects on industry and development funding, it is related to the capacity to study gaming-and to fund that study-within universities and it relates to self-attitudes to gameplay."
"New technologies have frequently been the subject of anxiety and apprehension, particularly in popular culture representations in films such as The Matrix or television series such as The X-Files (Cooper, 2002)."
"Rather, a thorough body of work that addresses the concerns that gaming is addictive is needed, and particularly work that broadens the scope of gaming by utilising cultural studies and uses/ gratifications notions in favour of an overly simplistic technological determinist understanding of the emergence of contemporary game culture"
"The transference of addiction rhetoric to discourses relating activities that may require repetitiveness or even have compulsive qualities is not limited to games, but has been similarly applied to gambling (Griffiths, 1998), sexual compulsion (Young, 1998) and pornography use (Pornography & Sexual Violence, 1983) among others"
" the medical and scientific discourses around chemical drugs, addiction is often defined either as processual behavioural change related to repetitive experience in socio-psychological disciplines, or neuroadaption to stimulation (such as psychoactive chemicals) among the more biochemically-oriented understandings of addiction. Either way, any concept of addiction involves a notion of behaviour change and a desire for or experience of repetition."
"It is variously one or several of these concepts that are used in digital addiction rhetoric to produce the figure or personage of the "frequent" or "heavy-use" game player as suffering an addiction, as an addict. Often this is seen simultaneously as a psychological disorder and through a model in which addiction is determined through that to which one is addicted-digital media in this case (e.g., Holliday, 2000)."
"In an interview on the cultural semiotics and connotations of drug use and dependence, Jacques Derrida refers to a notion of the "diction" of "addiction" as a set of significatory characteristics that are applied to drug users and which bind the applicant within a particular set of ideological and political valencies (Derrida, 1995)."
- What are the sources for the author's presentation of evidence that works against the author's thesis
"Lister et al (2003), indicate a dichotomy between computer-mediated communication forms (CMC) and videogames that is supported by several of the following binaries: creative content versus mindless entertainment; adult users versus youth consumers; fluid identity versus hypermasculinity; sociality versus commodified space; tool versus toy"
"Addiction is sometimes presented as an experience of moral disorder, a physical failing, a social failing, or as an infectious disease that must be contained or monitored for fear of spreading addiction from one body to another (Lart, 1998)"
"The US Congress in both 2000 and 2002 discussed legislation to limit violent content and more tightly regulate video games; in Australia a restricted (to adults) classification of games for those which would ordinarily be banned was opposed amidst a vocal lobby and a media moral panic; in New Zealand, the PlayStation 2 game Manhunt was recently banned by chief censor in the Film and Literature Office Bill Hastings on the basis that it was violence per se, not gameplay (InGaming, 2003"
"The notion that immersion becomes pleasurable is not without its roots in the rhetoric of chemical drug use, and works to support a discursive matrix presenting violence, drugs and gameplay as interrelated or, indeed, undifferentiated. Certainly it is the case that a game’s form requires a participant player to engage with a narrative in an interactive way around a goal-oriented main character."
- How does an academic article differ from 6A) a traditional game review, and 6B) New Games Journalism?
It differs because this is not a game review. There are similiar elements that that place through out the article i read. In come cases it seemed as if the writer was talking from a personal point of view, and then other cases where he was taking a professional point of view and expressing that. I feel like an academic article in some cases is more credible because of its sources, but at the same time with traditional game reviews and new games journalism, the language and research done is very credible. I feel like the question has so many answers, either being the right one.