March 2009 Archives

The Battle of Shiloh:Ulysses S. Grant &Cyrus F. Boyd

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-both the Union and the Confederate armies were full of "green" soldiers-they had never stepped foot on a battle field
-both described the battle with great intensity

-Grant's account made the Union soldiers seem chaotic, whereas Boyd's sounded as though the Confederates were well organized
-Grant's account was that of a well seasoned soldier, Boyd's was that of a fresh eyed rookie
-Boyd's account discussed the fleeing of the Confederate army and the scenes that were unfolding, Grant discussed his official decisions as the commanding officer
-Boyd's account had a much more personal flair than Grant's, you could actually feel as though you were there.

The Lecompton Constitution

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The Lecompton Constitution was a pro-slavery response to the anti-slavery, Topeka Constitution. When the two were put to a vote, Kansans could only vote on one section of the constitution, Article 7. This meant that if one was to vote against Article 7, then no new slaves could be imported Kansas, but current slaves would remain the property of their owners. If they voted for the article slavery would continue as it had been. When the actual vote took place the Free-Staters boycotted it, so Article 7 was approved in a landslide. After this the Free-State Legislature set a date to vote on the entire document rather than just Article 7. This time many Free-Staters showed up at the polls and overwhelmingly rejected the constitution in its entirety. There was intimidation and violence at the polls and election fraud was suspected. It was later investigated and John C. Calhoun was found to have forged pro-slavery votes. This greatly damaged both Calhoun's reputation and the power of the Lecompton Constitution. Two more constitutions were created, the Leavenworth and Wyandotte, before one was finally passed and Kansas officially became a state in 1861. After the Lecompton Constitution, the pro-slavery movement in Kansas never regained its power.

Dorothea Dix

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Dorothea Dix is most famous for her work in prisons and mental institutions, but during the Civil War she was the Union's Superintendent of Female Nurses. She volunteered her aid to the Union Army when she was 59 years old, right after the attack on Ft. Sumter. She convinced military officials that women were capable nurses and began recruiting women for the job. This resulted in over 3,000 women serving in the Union army as nurses. She made her nurses wear modest brown or black skirts and had a reputation for being very strict, winning her the nickname "dragon dix." However, the soldiers who received her name referred to her as the "Angel of the Battlefield." She took care of her nurses and the soldiers and found private funding when there was not enough available through the government. After the war she returned to her work for the mentally ill.

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The Ostend Manifesto

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     The Ostend Manifesto was a document written on October 9, 1854 in Ostend, Belgium.  The document was written by U.S. diplomats, James Buchanan, the U.S. minister to Britain, John Young Mason, U.S. minister to France, and Pierre SoulĂ©, U.S. minister to Spain.  An attempt to expand U.S. territory, the Ostend Manifesto pushed for Spain to sell Cuba to the United States for $120 million dollars.  The document also suggested that if Spain were to refuse, the U.S. would use force as an effort to get them to agree.  Intended to be a secret, the document leaked and was eventually made public.  Although it was primarily an attempt to expand U.S. territory, the document also caused uproar against antislavery groups because Cuba was already an established slavery territory.  The Ostend Manifesto was declared unconstitutional due to the Fugitive Slave Law that was passed as part of the Compromise of 1850; therefore Cuba did not become a U.S. territory.

Benjamin F. Butler

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     Benjamin F. Butler was born in late 1818 and would become known as an outspoken and controversial man during the Civil War era.  Butler studied law at Waterville (now Colby) College and had four children with his wife Sarah Hildreth.  A clever attorney who was known for using spectacular tricks to win cases, Butler often took on unpopular cases, especially those regarding the rights of labor.  He was active in politics, holding positions both as the Governor of Massachusetts in the 1850s and a general from New Hampshire during the Civil War.  Butler supported both the Democratic-Free Soil Coalition of 1850 as well as the Buchanan administration.  Benjamin F. Butler was a delegate to the Democratic Convention in Charleston during which he submitted a one-man minority platform that called for the re-endorsement of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.  Also as a delegate Butler voted over fifty times for Jefferson Davis to be the party’s presidential candidate.  After the convention broke he sided with pro-southern faction and supported John C. Breckinridge.  Butler was well-known for his help rehabilitating the Middlesex Mills where he performed a valuable service to the Union by putting aside anti-Republican prejudices and helped supply overcoats to Governor John A. Andrew.  Butler has a series of highly sensational operations starting with the isolation of the capital in which he destructed railroad tracks north of the city so that troops could travel through Annapolis.  He was promoted to major general by Lincoln after capturing Baltimore and refused to return runaway slaves employed as Confederate fortifications, declaring them “contraband of war.”  Butler lost the Battle of Big Bethel near Yorktown, VA and assisted in the capture of Hatteras Inlet in NC where he earned the military rank of president.  His administration of New Orleans was one of his most sensational operations.  Here he issued General Order No. 28 which threatened to treat all females who misbehaved towards troops as “women of the town plying their avocation.”  Butler also cleaned up streets, prevented yellow fever, aided the poor, and kept order in the city.  His military career came to an end after the reelection of Lincoln and he was reelected to Congress during Grant’s administration.  During his last years he remained a radical, defending the Haymarket riots and supporting the Populist candidate for president in 1892.  Throughout his life Butler remained outspoken and controversial, never being able to shake off rumors of corruption.  He was credited for successful advocacy of the rights of labor, blacks, and women, and for rallying Democrats to the national cause during the Civil War.

Battle of Antietam

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On September 16, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan confronted Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hooker’s soldiers mounted a powerful assault on Lee's troops that began the single bloodiest day in American military history. Fighting swept across Miller’s cornfield and fighting continued around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually penetrated the Confederate center, but the Union advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnside’s troops crossed the stone bridge over Antietam Creek . At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill’s division arrived from Harpers Ferry and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day. Although outnumbered 2-1, Lee committed his entire force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, enabling Lee to fight the Union to a standstill. During the night, both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of heavy casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley. The battle resulted in a union strategic victory, but no distinct winner.

The Alamo

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The battle of the Alamo took place between February 23rd and March 6th. March 6th is when the main battle took place. This battle took place after revolutionary settlers drove all Mexican troops out of Mexican Texas. Santa Anna, Mexican President led an invasion to regain control of the area. On March 6th the Mexican army launched an attack on the Alamo. The Texas fended off two attacks, but were unable to fend off a third. As Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texas soldiers retreated into the long barracks or the chapel. Several small groups who were unable to reach these points and attempted to escape but were killed outside the walls by the waiting Mexican cavalry.

On Santa Anna's orders, three of the survivors were sent to Gonzales to spread word of the Texas defeat. News of the Alamo's fall prompted many Texas colonists to join Houston's army. On the afternoon of April 21 the Texian army attacked Santa Anna's forces in the Battle of San Jacinto. During the battle many Texians shouted "Remember the Alamo!" Santa Anna was captured and forced to order his troops out of Texas, ending Mexican control of the area, which subsequently became the Republic of Texas.

Battle of Shiloh

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compare: both spoke of regiments inexperience. both talked of the cavalry in the back trying to keep fleeing soldiers in the battle. both talked about how the men were scared.

contrast: soldier: talks about blood sheed. Is short in his description. Focuses on negatives. Makes is sound like they are losing. gives accounts of brotherhood among men. his account is vivid and grusome.
Grant: focuses on technical war strategy. is in depth about position and battle status. never mentions possibility of defeat. focuses on positives. gives a tactical overview. only names generals.

David Farragut

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David Farragut was born in Knoxville Tennessee as James Farragut and he was adopted by David Porter. He legally changed his name to David Farragut. He joined the Navy at age 10 and he was the first admiral of the Navy. He was a significant contributing factor to the Union success at Vicksburg.

To capture New Orleans, he prepared 18 wooden vessels including the flagship Hartford, a fleet of martar boats and 700 men. The crew crisscrossed the hulls with chains so they could be almost as protected as iron clads. They also covered the hulls with mud to make the ship less visible. They painted the deck white so needed objects were more noticible and tied large trees to the mast to make the enemy think they were just trees on the opposite bank.

David Farragut was also famous for saying "Damn the torpedoes! Go ahead! Full Speed!"

Harpers Ferry

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Harpers Ferry was a gateway to the south and slave holding sections. There was a US Army arsenol there.

Oct 16-18 1859 Harpers Ferry Raid

Led by John Brown

17 white and 5 colored men tried to get the slaves to join forces, but all of the slaves declined. Brown was defeated and hanged.

Sept 9, 1862 in Frederick, MD

Lee issured "Lost Order" outlining his plan of operations. Lee directed Jackson to make a wide march to the southwest, capture the garrison at Harpers Ferry as quickly as possible and then hurry northward to rejoin the main army on the south mountain, then combine forces and move through Hagerstown, PA.

Sept 14

McClellan knows about Lee's plans

Sept 15

Harpers Ferry surrendered and Lee goes to Sharpsburg and expects Jackson, but Jackson is 24 hours behind schedule.

Genral Joe Johnston

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General Joe Johnston was a confederate general, who was born near Farmville, Virginia.  In 1825 he recieved an appointment to West Point, where he was a classmate of Robert E. Lee.  he graduated 13th out of a class of 46 and was commissioned a second lieutenant of artillery.  Johnston's next important service was in Mexico.  He was present at the siege of Vera Cruz and was wounded.  When Reinforcments arrived he was promoted to lieutenant colonal and appointed second in command.  He then fought in 3 more battles, and for his role he was promoted to colonel.  After finally being recgonized as colonal he was appointed quartermaster general of the army.  He later accepted a brigadier general's commission from the confederate government at Montgomery and assumed command of confederate forces at Harpers Ferry, Virginia.  From there he lead his forces to Manassas Junction to join with those of P.G.T. Beauregard and defeated the Federal army at the 1st battle of Manassas.  Finally, he launched a poorly coordinated counterattack that left him wounded.  Robert E. Lee then assumed command of the army.  After that he was in and out of the war because of defeats and a dispute between President Davis.  Later he died in his home in Washington from acquiring pneumonia.

Ulysses S. Grant

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            Born on April 27, 1822, and lived to July 23, 1885. He was an American General and the eighteenth President of the United States. He made his fame by being the leading General in the American Civil War. Grant first arouse early in the Civil War when he took Fort Henry and Donelson in 1862, which were some of the Unions first major victories. The next year he celebrated a victory in Vicksburg which secured control of the Mississippi for the Union. Grant also won a major Union victory in Gettysburg, which is seen as the major turning point in the war, which gave the Union the upper hand. In 1864 Grant was named commanding general of the Federal armies. He was the coordinator in establishing simultaneous attacks aimed at destroying the South’s ability to carry on the war. . In 1865 he accepted the Surrender of the South from Robert R. Lee at Appomattox Court House. At this point Grant was considered one of the greatest Generals of his age and one of the greatest strategists of any age. In 1868, Grant was elected President for the Republican party and served for two terms. Grant was 46 years old and was the youngest President to take office at that point. He took a radical stance on reconstruction and greatly supported civil rights for African Americans.

Freeport Doctrine

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The Freeport Doctrine was created by Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858, in Freeport, Illinois. Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular sovereignty proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the United States Supreme Court case of Dred Scott v. Sandford, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from the territories. Douglas' response stated that despite the court's ruling, slavery could be prevented from any territory by the refusal of the people living in that territory to pass laws favorable to slavery. Likewise, if the people of the territory supported slavery, legislation would provide for its continued existence. By taking this stance on slavery Douglas was trying to compromise between pro and anti slavery positions. However Southern democrats abandoned by Douglas making him more unpopular in the South and this would eventually be the key to his loss in the 1860 presidential election.


Slavery could not exist without the proper laws and police regulations necessary to make slavery work. So without the legal framework and officials set in place for for slavery to work it would be excluded from that territory.

IOWAvs.GRANT AnthonyAgliori

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He believed and wrote that the territory could have been gained if he could correctly threaten the enemy, he believed too many people died, and he also wrote about men hiding behind their lines while their fellow soldiers were being killed.  Grant also wrote about his near death experience, and really focuses on strategy and tactics in his experience. Grant is a man who was bred to lead, and to feel little emotion when a soldier is killed. It is war and he understands the amount of loss that is likely to happen.



Opposed to Grant recollection, the Iowa soldier account is less about strategy and more of a close first person encounter from the battle field. His details are emotionally real facts, Grant talks of death as merely a fact on paper.  I found this article to be simpler; he is obviously a different type of person than is Grant.  He was not a bred leader but blue collar man in war, he lost friends and family in the war and saw it’s grotesqueness from the front lines, that is why he is more detailed regarding his account.

Oregon - AnthonyAgliori

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Oregon During The Civil War

                In the mid to late 1800’s many Americans were traveling west to make money in the Gold Rush.  These people set up communities around the area they were searching for gold.  In 1861, the Civil war began, the US government began pulling soldiers out of Oregon to fight in the war.  This created a problem at the reservations the US soldiers were policing, thus causing the creation of the First Oregon Cavalry.  Due to the gold rush and general disrespect the Americans had for the American Indians, there were many raids by the Indians, especially by the Northern Piute. The First cavalry chased all over Oregon and the surrounding areas searching for, but hardly ever finding the Indians.  The Civil War in Oregon was hardly a political or moral war fought between one nation, but a search  for an elusive group of Indians, who’s land was pulled right out from under their feet

George McClellan

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Jimmy Funk
Dr. Spurlock
Civil War

George McClellan

  • Born in 1826 Died in 1885
  • Was a major general during the American Civil War
  • Organized the famous Army of the Potomac
  • Served briefly as the General in Chief of the union Army
  • Early in the war was important for raising a well trained army
  • His dedicatedness to preparation held him back as a good general in fast moving combat.
  • Always overestimated the opponents size and strength
  • Was unable to seize the Confederate capital of Richmond.
  • His bad performance at the bloody battle of Antietam let Lee's army still remain when they should have been made to surrender.
  • McCellan became the unsuccessful Democratic nominee opposing Lincoln in the 1864 election.
  • He served as the 24th governor on New Jersey from 1878 to 1881
  • Eventually became a writer defending his actions during the peninsula campaign and the civil war

Steven Douglas

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Jimmy Funk
Civil War and Reconstruction
Dr. Spurlock

Steven Douglas

  • Born April 23 1813 died June 3 1861
  • United States senator and Presidential candidate.
  • Was interested in Andrew Jacksons Works
  • 1830 entered Canandaigua Academy studying Broad subjects
  • In 1833 left the academy to study law in the office of a local attorney.
  • Settled in Jacksonville Illinois in 1833
  • Admitted to the bar in 1834
  • Douglas was instrumental  in bringing the Jacksonian party system to Illinois
  • 1836 was elected to a seat in the lower house of the state legislature served with Abraham Lincoln
  • 1838 ran for congress and lost.
  • 1843 got into congress and began his career in national legislature.
  • After two terms in the house he was elected to the senate in 1846
  • Was involved in every major issue that came before congress during one of the nations most critical periods.
  • In 1852 and 1856 was the leading contender for the democratic presidential candidate.
  • He wanted to develop the west
  • He wrote sponsored and modified bills for seven territories Oregon, Minnesota, Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Kansas, and Nebraska
  • Supported war with Mexico
  • Douglas wasn't pro slavery but he knew  the abolishment of it would destroy the Union.\
  • Strong Believer in popular savernty letting the states themselves decide.
  • Douglas introduced the Kansas Nebraska Act.
  • Douglas was convinced popular sovernty was the only national solution.

U.S. Sanitary Commission

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President Lincoln signed the bill on June 18th, 1861 making the United States Sanitary Commission an official agency of the U.S. The USSC was done by the work of thousands of women in the Union. They helped cut the disease rate of the Union Army in half in 5 years. Women tirelessly canvassed neighborhoods for donations, worked as nurses, organized diet kitchens in the camps, ran hospital ships, knitted socks & gloves, sewed blankets & uniforms, baked food, and organized Sanitary Fairs that raised millions of dollars worth of goods and funds for the Federal army. "Depots" were set up to collect, organize and repack food and supplies being sent by wives, sisters, mothers, and sweethearts who had joined together in thousands of ladies aids societies all over the north. Sanitary agents prowled the camps, inspecting the living conditions and the hospitals and setting standards for the hiring of medical personnel. An added accomplishment of the USSC was that it allowed women to hone organizational and administrative skills during their experience with the commission, which was an important advancement for women, as they entered the world of business, more and more. After the war, the USSC worked with Union Veterans to secure their bounties, back pay, and apply for pensions, until it was finally disbanded in May of 1866.


(2002, Feb 10). Retrieved March 4, 2009, from The Sanitary Commission Web site:



Grant/Boyd Comparison

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Battle of Shiloh (Grant)

o Grant believed much more could have been accomplished without as much loss of life

o He thought he would gain the territory if he could correctly threaten the opposing force

o Grant was taken away from Command for about a week.

o He was left on a steamer.

o The Federal side suffered heavy losses.

o The area was heavily wooded with some clearings.

o No hour during the day there was not heavy firing.

o Grant rode back behind the battle and found many men hiding in the woods scared.

o Grant states that there were stragglers on each side of the war, people who were afraid and would hide when the battles would start.

o Grant almost died along with 2 other commanders.























An Iowa Soldier Sees the Elephant at Shiloh    


  • This story is different from Grants in which it is told from the front lines. The story is a lot shorter and yet I think it does a better job and describing how bloody the battle really was. Grant’s article is technical and talks about the strategy of the battle more than the loss of life. The author really talks about how this is the valley and the shadow of death. It paints a very good picture for what they had to go through and how tough the battle was. He talks about how horses were dead and others were running around without riders. This gives a better picture of death and destruction. I liked this article better because it was easier to understand and not as technical as grants.


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The Battle of Chancellorsville
        Between April 26th and May 6th, 1863, a confrontation between the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia took place near the town of Chancellorsville, Virginia.  Just days before the battle occurred, General Joseph Hooker was placed in charge of the Union Army.  One of his first maneuvers as commander was to move his men, at least 70,000 in number, along the Rappahannock River.  After crossing the river on April 29th, Hooker and his men came up on Confederate General Robert E. Lee's rear.  Hooker's calvary and three Army corps split, with the calvary pushing west and the army corps securing various positions like Getmanna and Ely's Fords.  Many minor skirmishes took place  near the town of Fredericksburg and Crook's Run. 
        Also, during this time, General Stoneman and his group of Union calvary led a raid on the Confederates, cutting many lines of communication and destroying portions of Virginia's Central Railroad.  Their disruption of Lee's communication resulted in the loss of contact with Richmond, Virginia and those in charge in the capital.  Despite their success in cutting General Lee's communication, the calvary were unable to warn Hooker and the other Union forces of the imminent attack by the Army of Northern Virginia when the time came.
        Rather than retreating, Lee faced most of his troops to the Union and confronted the enemy in an area of dense woods, known as the Wilderness.  On May 1st, completely disregarding the fact that his Army was outnumbered nearly two to one, Lee made a bold move and took the offensive.  At this point of the day, Hooker had became very cautious, he placed his troops in a defensive position and the Confederates struck.
        On May 2nd, 1863, General Lee divided his forces, sending Stonewall Jackson and his 28,000 men on a march through the woods to attack the right flank of the Union. Their bold attack surprised Union commanders and crumpled the flank in the late afternoon.  Later that night, in an effort to scout the terrain for a moonlight attack, Jackson was mistook by his own men as a Union calvary member.  Stonewall Jackson was shot and severely wounded; he died about a week later from pneumonia that he contracted in his arm while recuperating.  
        After Jackson's, brilliant and devastating attack, the Federals dispersed and were forced to move back toward the town of Chancellorsville.  The fighting continued on May 3rd as Northern positions were effectively eliminated by the Confederates.  J.E.B. Stuart took over Jackson's position and together with Lee, they halted any further advance by the Union.  Despite an  offensive effort by General Sedgwick to fire on Confederate positions, the Union was defeated.  Hooker and his men retreated across the Rappahannock river in the late hours of May 4th.
        Throughout the battle of Chancellorsville the North lost nearly 16,800 men and the South around 12,800.  The victory is considered one of Lee's best, despite being substantially outnumbered, the General used cunning and brilliant tactics to deliver his Confederacy yet another remarkable victory.

Works Cited
Bowman, John S. The Civil War Almanac. New York: World Almanac Publications, 1983.

Murrin, John M. & Johnson, Paul E. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. United States: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.

The Battle of Chancellorsville Official Records and Battle Description,

Louisiana Purchase

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Louisiana Purchase
        In 1803, Thomas Jefferson was presented with a deal he could not refuse.  The Louisiana Purchase gave the United States nearly 828,000 square miles of land, west of the Mississippi and extending to modern day Canada.  To the south, the territory reached the Gulf of Mexico and went west until present day Montana.  Early on, in 1801, Jefferson sent American ministers to France to negotiate a deal with Napoleon Bonaparte for a port located at the mouth of the Mississippi River.  Also, trading rights in New Orleans were an important topic of discussion.  Although Napoleon had earlier plans of establishing a North American Empire, he gave up on these ambitions to concentrated his resources on Europe.  Bonaparte astonished Jefferson's ministers by announcing that France would sell not only New Orleans, but all of the Louisiana Territory. 
        On April 11th, 1803, the United States agreed to buy the territory for the low price of $15 million dollars.  After the purchase, many of Jefferson's opponents, the Federalists, argued that the president lacked the constitutional power to buy territory.  They argued that there was not a law in existence that made provision to do this.  However, their attack eventually dissolved, for even they knew that the United States would gain substantial prosperity from this new territory.  By October 20th, 1803 the Louisiana Purchase was approved by the Senate.  Westward expansion began immediately following the approval.  In 1804, territorial government had been established and in 1812, the state of Louisiana was admitted into the Union. 
        Overall, the acquisition of the new land had more than doubled the geographic size of the United States.  It ensured Americans access to interior rivers and completely eliminated the threat of foreign invasion on the western border.  The vast lands of the west would allow the republic to renew itself and sustain an agrarian lifestyle for many years to come.  Jefferson claimed in his second inaugural address that he had purchased a great “empire of liberty” that would benefit generations of Americans. 

Works Cited

Foner, Eric & Garraty, John A. The Readers Companion to American History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.

Murrin, John M. & Johnson, Paul E. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People. United States: Thomson Wadsworth, 2005.

Adams-onis treaty

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  The Adams-Onis treaty was on of the critical events that defined the U.S.-Mexico border.  After months of negotiations between John Quincy Adams and spanish prime minister Don Luis de Onis, the treaty was signed on Febuary 22, 1819.  In the treaty the United States aquires Florida and drew a definiate border between spanish territory and the Louisiana territory.  In addition, the treaty also states that all the islands in the Sabine, Red, and Arkansas rivers are to belong to the United States.  By the terms of this boundry, the U.S. agreed that Texas was spanish territory and spain agreed to give the Northwest territory north of forty-two degrees to the United States.  The boundry line of the Adams-Onis treaty determined the Southern and most of the Western boundry of the future state of Oklahoma.

Anaconda Plan

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The Anaconda Plan is a name for the strategy proposed by Winfield Scott to fight the south in the civil war. Winfield Scott was the general in chief for the north. The plans strategy was to blockade all southern ports and use the Mississippi river to advance through the south. It was called the Anaconda Plan because like an anaconda smothers its prey, so would the north surround and smother the south. The two prominent features of Scott's plan was to block all southern ports to stop importing and exporting with England and to send a column of 80,000 men down the Mississippi river to take the south.   

John Brown

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John Brown was born on May 9, 1800, in Torrington, Connecticut. He was one of Owen Brown and Ruth Mills eight children. He was also the grandson of Capt. John Brown for who he was named. Brown was an abolitionist was promoted and used armed insurrection as an attempt to bring an end to slavery. He wanted violent action to respond to the south. He led the Pottawatomie Massacre in 1856 in Bleeding Kansas. He is most famous for his involvement in the raid at Harpers Ferry in 1859 where he started a liberation movement for slaves. He was taken to court for murder of five southerners after the raid in addition to starting a slave insurrection. He was hanged for such. Some southerners said that his actions stood for the true desires of the republican party. 

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